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高考英语主谓一致

中小学试题|家庭教育题库|辅导习题「中国戏曲学院附属中等戏曲学校」来源: https://www.gxfz.org 2019-11-20 19:22数学 357 ℃
高考,英语,主谓,一致,主谓,一致,英语,中的,主谓一致
英语中的一致主要包括主语和谓语在人称和单复数上的一致、时态一致、名词和其代词一致。谓语动词的形式必须随着主语单复数形式的变化而变化。高考英语中主要以完形填空和语法填空的形式,同时可能会结合其他语法点比如非谓语动词和复合句等来考查。

一、 主谓一致的三原则
主谓一致一般要遵循三个原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则和就近原则。

(一) 语法一致原则
主语和谓语通常是从语法形式上取得一致,即主语是单数形式,谓语动词也采用单数形式;主语是复数形式,谓语动词也采用复数形式。
Jolin has made great success with so many years going on.
Jolin是单数形式,谓语动词have也应当用单数形式has
The Jolins are very fond of singing .
the Jolins 指一家人,表示复数,谓语动词be也应当用复数形式are。


(二) 意义一致原则
意义一致原则是指从意义着眼来处理主谓一致问题。有时候主语在形式上是单数形式,但是其意义是负数,谓语动词根据意义而定,采用复数形式。
The singer and artist is holding a concert called “land blue”.
歌星和大艺术家是同一个人,是单数。

The old are very well taken care of in our city.
the old 指所有老年人,指一类人,是复数。


(三) 就近原则
就近原则是指谓语动词的变化以靠近谓语动词的主语部分而定。
Linlin or you are supposed to get into the hole.
You是最靠近谓语动词的主语部分,因此be动词应当用复数形式的are。

二、 主谓一致的详细讲解

(一) 代词作主语
1.不定代词either, neither, each, one, the other,another以及复合不定代词someone, somebody等作主语,谓语动词用单数。
Someone has parked the car on the street.
One is from the USA and the other two are from the UK.
2.不定代词none作主语时如果指人或者可数的物,指数目,谓语动词单复数均可;如果指不可数名词,指量,谓语动词用单数。
None of the students have/has made the mistakes this time.
Jimmy has used up all the money. None is left.
(单独作主语)指人时,谓语动词用复数,指物时,谓语动词用单数。
All are present at the meeting.
All is going on very well.
4.由each修饰的名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。Each位于复数主语后或者句尾作同位语时,不影响谓语动词的单复数形式。
Each student has a walkman which helps them improve their listening.
They each have won the first prize.
=They have won the first prize each.
r of 和 either of 加复数名词或者代词作主语,谓语动词用单复数均可。

Either of the story is/are interesting。
Neither of us has/have received the postcard.
作主语时谓语动词的单复数形式应当根据其意义而定。

Such is Stephen Hawing , who has suffered a great deal but achieved so much.
Such are the difficulties that we are faced with.
7.疑问代词作主语时,谓语动词应当根据其实际意义来判断单复数。
Who is the girl over there?
Who are the girls over there?
Which is your book, this one or that one?
Which are your books, these or those?
8.关系代词作主语,其人称和数的变化随先行词而定。参加定语从句讲义。
Those who have seen the film please put up your hands.
The man who is speaking at the meeting is our chairman.
注意三种结构: one of, the only of,not the only of加名词或者代词结构中的定语从句的单复数。参见定语从句讲义。


(二)名词作主语
1.集体名词作主语


(1)people, cattle, police只有复数概念的集体名词,谓语动词用复数。


(2)audience, army, class, company, enemy, family, group, public, government, population等集体名词作主语,若作为一个主体,谓语动词用单数;若着眼于成员或者个体,谓语动词用复数。
His family was the largest among the whole village.
My family are going on a trip this summer.


(3)equipment, furniture, baggage, machinery, clothing, jewellery等表示某一类物品总称的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
(因为这些词是不可数名词。)
2.单复数同形的词作主语,谓语动词单复数根据其意义而定。

means, fish, sheep, deer, crossroads, series, species, works(工厂)
Each means has been tried to solve the problem.
There are various of means to solve the problem.


(1)work 与 works
work表示“工作”,不可数名词,谓语动词永远用单数。
work表示“作品”,可数名词,谓语动词用单数;复数形式是works,谓语动词用复数。
works表示“工厂”,单复数同形。谓语动词视其句子中的意义而定。


(2)a series of + n 和 a species of +n 作主语,谓语动词用单数。
3.以s结尾的由两部分组成的表示衣物或者工具的名词作主语,谓语动词用复数。
如:glasses, shoes, boots, pants, chopsticks, scissors, socks, stockings, trousers等
但是前面有“a pair of”或者“pairs of”修饰时,谓语动词与pair保持一致。
4.以s结尾的学科作主语,谓语动词用单数。如:politics, physics, mathematics
5.以s结尾的海峡、山脉、群岛和表示时间、距离、长度、价值、金额、重量等的复数名词作主语,常被看做整体,谓语动词用单数。
Twenty years has passed.
A hundred miles is a long way.

(三)含有修饰语的名词的主谓一致
1. a number of 和 the number of
a number of + 复数名词,表示“很多”,谓语动词用复数;
the number of + 复数名词,表示“……的数量”,谓语动词用单数。

, plenty of , a lot of, lots of等既可以修饰可数名词,也可以修饰不可数名词,其谓语动词单复数根据所修饰的词而定。
Some people work to live while some people live to work.
A lot of work is to be done to prepare for the conference.
3.主语含有quantity,谓语动词单复数看quantity
a quantity of + 可数名词/不可数名词,谓语动词用单数
quantities of +可数名词/不可数名词,谓语动词用复数
of, the rest, the rest of, part, part of作主语,谓语动词应根据所修饰的名词或者代词而定。
Part of his story was not true.
Part of the teachers are from England.
5.百分数,分数+of+名词作主语,谓语动词根据of后的名词决定单复数。
50% of the land is now suitable to grow crops.
20% of the people object to the new law.
注意一个例外:
当用“one in”或者“one out of”表示几分之一时,谓语动词不看of后的名词,只用单数。
It is reported that one in ten people suffers from lung cancer.
One out of twenty was badly damaged.
6.“the majority of + 复数名词”作主语,谓语动词用复数。
“the majority”单独作主语,谓语动词既可以用单数也可以用复数。
The majority of boys like football.
The majority were/was in favor of the proposal.
7.“a kind of , this kind of , many kinds of +名词”作主语,谓语动词与of后的名词保持数的一致。(kind可以替换成sort,type,form)。

Tags: 高考 主谓 一致 英语 中的

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