2019年高考英语真题模拟试题专项汇编:阅读理解_中小学试题|家庭教育题库|辅导习题「中国戏曲学院附属中等戏曲学校」




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2019年高考英语真题模拟试题专项汇编:阅读理解

中小学试题|家庭教育题库|辅导习题「中国戏曲学院附属中等戏曲学校」来源: https://www.gxfz.org 2019-11-20 19:32数学 431 ℃
2019年,高考,英语,真题,模拟试题,专项,汇编,2019年07月30日xx学校高中英语试卷



一、任务型阅读
1.请认真阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。
The Cost of Thinking
Despite their many differences, all human beings share several defining characteristics. such as large brains and the ability to walk upright on two legs.
The first unique human characteristic is that humans have extraordinarily large brains compared with other animals. It seems obvious that evolution should select for larger brains. Mammals(哺乳动物)weighing sixty kilograms have an average brain size of 200 cm2. Modern man has a brain averaging 1200-1400 cm2. We are so fond of our high intelligence that we assume that when it comes to brain power, more must be better. Unfortunately, that is not the case.
The fact is that a huge brain is a huge drain—consumption of energy—on the body. I's not easy to carry around, especially when boxed inside a massive skull(倾骨). It's even harder to provides energy. In modern man, the brain accounts for about 2-3%of total body weight but it consumes 25% of the body's energy when the body is at rest. By comparison, the brains of apes(类人猿)require only 8%of rest-time energy. Early humans pad for their large brains in two ways. Firstly, they spent more time in search food. Secondly, their muscles grew smaller and weaker. It's hardly an obvious conclusion that this is a good way to survive. A chimpanzee(黑猩猩) can't win an argument with a modern man, but it can tear the man apart like a rag doll.
Another unique human characteristic is that we walk upright. Standing up, it's easier to find food or enemies. In addition, their arms that are unnecessary for moving around are freed for other purposes, like throwing stones or signaling. As a result, humans can perform very complex tasks with their hands.
Yet walking upright has its disadvantage. The bone structure of our ancestors developed for millions of years to support a creature that walked on all fours and has a relatively small head. Adjusting to an upright position was quite a challenge, especially when the bones had to support an extra-large skull. Humankind paid for its broad vision and skillful hands backaches and painful necks.
We assume that a large brain makes huge advantages. It seems obvious that these have made humankind the most powerful animal on earth. But humans enjoyed all of these advantages for a full 2 million years during which they remained weak and marginal creature. Thus humans who lived a million years ago, despite their big brains and sharp stone tools, lived in constant fear of meat-eating animals.
The Cost of Thinking
Introduction
• Large brains for their bodies and the ability to walk upright are two ①___________ of human beings.
The ②___________ of large human brains
• The larger brains may not be better because of the cost.
• The big brains make it harder for the body to move around and consume more energy.
• The animal brain requires less ③___________ when the body is at rest.
•   Large human brains consume more food, and weaken muscles.
The ④___________ of walking upright
• Walking upright makes it easy to find food or ⑤___________ against enemies.
• Freed hands can serve some ⑥___________ purpose and perform complex tasks.
• Walking upright challenges the human bone structure, and ⑦___________ the size of brains.
• Walking upright results in ⑧___________ sufferings.
Conclusion
• With a large brain, human beings ⑨___________ other beings in terms of intelligence.
• Weak and marginal, human beings remained ⑩___________ of meat-eating animals.
2.“Whatever your job is, the chances are that one of these machines can do it faster or better than you can.”
As innovation accelerates, thousands of jobs will disappear, just as it has happened in the previous cycles of industrial revolutions. Machines powered by narrow AI algorithms can already perform certain 3-D tasks (“dull, dirty and dangerous”) much better than humans. This may create enormous pain for those who are losing their jobs over the next few years, particularly if they don't acquire the computer-related skills that would enable them to find more creative opportunities. We must learn from the previous waves of creative destruction if we are to lessen human suffering and increasing inequality.
For example, some statistics indicate that as much as 3% of the population in developed countries work as drivers. When automated cars become a reality in the next 15 to 25 years, we must offer people who will be “structurally unemployed” some sort of compensation income, training and re-positioning opportunities.。

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