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中国文化英语教程文本 中国的英文

中小学试题|家庭教育题库|辅导习题「中国戏曲学院附属中等戏曲学校」来源: https://www.gxfz.org 2020-02-14 16:23小学 651 ℃
中国的英文
Part I Wisdom and Beliefs Unit 1 Confucian thought on heaven and humanity Confucius (551-479 BC), known in China as Kongzi, given name Qiu and alias Zhongni, was a native of Zouyi (present-day Qufu in Shandong Province) of the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC). A great thinker, educator and founder of Confucianism, Confucius is an ancient sage to the Chinese people. His words and life story were recorded by his disciples and their students in The Analects (Lunyu). Confucius on Heaven: the source of Everything In the Shang (1600-1046 BC) and Zhou (1046-256 BC) dynasties, the prevalent concept of “Heaven” was that of a personified god, which influenced Confucius. Generally, however, Confucius regarded “Heaven” as nature. He said, “Heaven does not speak in words. It speaks through the rotation of the four seasons and the growth of all living things.” Obviously, heaven equaled nature, in the eyes of Confucius. Moreover, nature was not a lifeless mechanism separate from humans; instead, it was the great world of life and the process of creation of life. Human life was part and parcel of nature as a whole. Confucius on People: ren and li Ren and Li are the two core concepts of Confucius’s doctrine about people. When his students Fan Chi asked him about ren, Confucius replied, “love people”. This is Confucius’ most important interpretation of ren. Love for the people is universal love. Confucius further emphasized that this kind of love should “begin with the love for one’s parents”. He believed no one could love people in general if they did not even love their own parents. Confucius regarded “filial piety and fraternal duty” as the essence of ren. The Doctrine of the Mean (Zhongyong) quotes Confucius as saying, “ The greatest love for people is the love for one’s parents.” He also said, “Children should not travel far while their parents are alive. If they have no choice but to do so, they must retain some restraint.” He did not mean that children should not leave their parents at all. What he meant was that children should not make the parents anxious about them while away from home. Confucius said again, “Children should think often of the age of their parents. They should feel happy for the health and longevity of their parents. They should also feel concern for the aging of their parents.” By ren, Confucius meant universal love based on love for one’s parents. How should people love one another then? Confucius said, “One should be aware that other people may have similar desires as oneself. While fulfilling one’s desires, allow others to fulfill their desires as well.” He further said, “Do not do toward others anything you would not want to be done to you.” Thus from oneself to one’s family, from family to society, one should extend love to all people. Mencius (c. 372-289 BC), a great Confucian scholar, best summarized ren as, “loving one’s parents, loving the people, loving everything in the world.” Li refers to rituals, traditions and norms in social life. Of these, Confucius regarded burial rituals and ancestral worship rituals as the most important, because they rose from human feelings. He said, “A child should not leave his parents’ bosom until he is three years old.” He naturally love his parents. The ritual of wearing mourning for a deceased parent for three years was an expression of the child’s love and remembrance. Confucius on the State of life Before Confucius, only the nobility had the right to education. He was the first figure in Chinese history to initiate private education. According to historical records, Confucius taught for many years and trained 3,000 disciples. A total of 72 of them excelled in the “six arts”, i.e., ritual, music, archery, (carriage)driving, calligraphy, and mathematics. A great educator, Confucius has been admired by later generations as the “sage of sages”. Confucius believed the basic goal of education was to cultivate “persons of virtue”, who should have sound character and uplifted minds. Such people should be able to shoulder important social responsibilities and to make contributions to society. Confucius regarded lofty ideals, great virtue, love of people, and the “six arts” as the general principles of education. Of these, virtue was the most important. His students were involved in a variety of professions, including politics, trade, education, diplomacy, ritual ceremony, and classifying ancient books. Whatever they did, they all wanted to improve their learning of the humanities and to enhance their virtue. Unit 2 Laozi’s philosophy of Non-action The book Laozi was written around the sixth century BC. The author is generally believed to be Lao Dan, or Laozi – a recluse who lived during the Spring and Autumn Period. Few records have survived about Lao Dan, who was said to have once held a low civil position in the royal court, in chare of the archival records of the Zhou Dynasty. Yet, due to his great learning, even Confucius was said to have traveled miles to consult him. Laozi, also known as Classic of the Way and Virtue (Dao De Jing), consists of just over 5,000 Chinese characters. Its 81 chapters are divided into two parts, Dao (the Way) and De (Virtue). Short as it is, the book has played a tremendous role in the development of Chinese culture. It became the basis of Daoism, the school of philosophy parallel to Confucianism in ancient China. The thought of Laozi formed the foundation of Daoism, the most influential indigenous school of religion in China. It has also exerted a direct impact on the characteristics, trends of thought and aesthetic sensibilities of the Chinese nation. Today Laozi still plays a role in the development of Chinese thinking. Naturalness and Non-action “Naturalness” is an important concept of Laozi’s philosophy. It refers to a natural state of being, an attitude of following the way of nature. Laozi emphasized that everything in the world has its own way of being and development: birds fly in the sky, fish swim in the water, clouds float in the sky, flowers bloom and flowers fall. All these phenomena occur independently and naturally without following any human will, and humans should not try to change anything natural. Laozi admonished people to give up on any desire to control the world. Following the way of nature is the way to resolving conflicts between humans and the world. “Non-action” is another important concept of Laozi’s philosophy. It is the guarantee of “Naturalness”. Laozi said, “(Dao or the Way) acts through non-action,” by which he did no mean that one should do nothing and passively wait for something to be achieved. Neither did he deny human creativity. What he meant is that human enterprises should be built on the basis of naturalness, not on many attempts to interrupt the rhythm of nature. Human creativity should be in compliance with the ways of nature. The philosophy of Non-contention On the basis of “naturalness” and “non-action”, Laozi proposed the view of “overcoming the strong by being weak”. The era Laozi lived in was replete with endless wars. Therefore, war was an important treme for philosophers, and ant-war thinking was the norm. Even the great strategist Sunzi advocated “winning a war without fighting it”, not to mention the great thinker Confucius, who strongly championed a government based on love. Their contemporary Mozi (c. 468-376 BC), founder of Mohism, also condemned wars while calling for “love for all”. According to Laozi, war springs from humanity’s bloated desires. Conflict arises out of people’s struggles to satisfy their desires, and conflict escalates into war. Therefore, Laozi’s philosophy is based on “non-contention”. To him, human striving and competitive strife is the root cause of decline; desiring nothing is the natural way of life. Laozi said, “The greatest virtue is like water.” He compared his philosophy of “non-contention” to water, to distinguish it from the law of the jungle. He said, “Water nourishes everything but contends for nothing.” To Laozi, humans tend to seek higher positions while water always flows to lower places. Driven by desire, humans like whatever they think is superior while despising whatever they think is inferior. Yet water always flows downward. As the source of life, water nourishes all living things on Earth. No life can exist without water. Water contributes to the world without regard for gain or loss. Remaining low, level and tranquil, water embraces and reflects everything under heaven. The way of water is completely different from the way of people with avid desires. But the philosophy of Laozi is by no means weak. On the contrary, it is full of strength. According to Laozi, water accumulates great strength in its weakness and quietude. Its strength can break down all barriers in the world. He said, “Nothing in the world is weaker than water. Yet nothing is stronger than water when it comes to breaking something strong.” Water is a typical example of the weak winning over the strong. Water is invincible because it desires nothing and contends for nothing. Unit 3 Chinese Buddhist Culture Who am I? Where am I from? Where am I going? Men are mortal. But death is not an once-and-for-all thing. They enter the rotating Wheel of Six Realms:Heaven, Human, Asura, Animal, Hungry Ghost, Hell. Documents stored in computer can be canceled at will, but what we have done in our life, and actually in our innumerable lives, cannot. What has been done has been done. The information is stored in your true “self”, not the physical one, and will accompany you life after life, and determines which Realm you enter. Only when we are completely free from lust, hatred, and folly, can we manage to break away from the capture of the rotating Wheel, and achieve perpetual enlightenment, discovering your true “self”. In Buddhism there isn’t any dominating god who controls your destiny. We are the maker of our own fate. What we are at present is a result of what we have done in the past; and what we will be in the future is decided by what we are doing at present. What we have done form the “karma”, which, like a gene, decides on your future story. But this “gene” can of course be modified, by doing good deeds and obtaining healthy biological and spiritual energy, so as to change our future course of career. We are, therefore, our own master. What are the basic requirements for a Buddhist? Five Prohibitions for the laymen: 1) Don’t kill; 2) Don’t steal; 3) Don’t seek aberrant sensual pleasures; 4) Don’t talk irresponsibly; 5) Don’t drink alcohol. Part II Creativity and Exchange Unit 4 The Silk Road The silk road refers to a transport route connecting ancient China with Central Asia, West Asia, Africa, and the European continent. It appeared as early as the second century BC and was traveled mainly by silk merchants. The term “Silk Road”, or “die Seidenstrasse” in German, was first noted down by the German geographer Ferdinand Von Richthofen at the end of the 19th century. The silk road began in Chang’an (present-day Xi’an, capital of Shaanxi Province), passing through Gansu and Xinjiang to Central Asia, West Asia, and to lands by the Mediterranean. There were no signs of communication between ancient Chinese civilization and Mediterranean civilization in earlier history. In about the seventh century BC, the ancient Greeks began to learn about an ancient civilization to the east, yet knew little about it. Before the Silk Road, according to archeological findings, there had already existed an intermittent trade route on the grasslands from the Yellow River and the Indus River drainage areas to the Euphrates and the Tigris, and the Nile drainage areas. Yet real communication between China, Central and West Asian countries, Africa and the European continent did not develop until the opening of the Silk Road. Zhang Qian, Trail Blazer The pioneer who blazed the trail of the Silk Road was Zhang Qian (c. 164-114 BC). In Zhang Qian’s time, the Chinese has little knowledge about Central and West Asian countries, Africa or Europe, although they were aware of the existence of many different countries and cultures in faraway places to the west. During the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 140-135 BC), there were 36 small kingdoms in the Western Regions (present-day Xinjiang and parts of Central Asia). All of them were later conquered by the Huns, who then posed a direct threat to the Western Han and blocked the dynasty’s path west. Under these circumstances, Emperor Wu appointed Zhang Qian to lead a team of more than 100 envoys to the Western Regions. The mission was to unite the Indo-Scythic people against the Huns, who once killed their chieftain. Zhang Qian’s team set out in 138 BC. No sooner had they entered the Hexi Corridor (northwest of present-day Gansu Province), than they were captured by the Huns. After being held under house arrest for over ten years, Zhang Qian and only one other remaining envoy managed to escape and return to Chang’an in 126 BC. Their accounts about the Western Regions were a revelation to Hun emperor and his ministers. In the next two decades, Emperor Wu launched three major campaigns against the Huns, forcing them to retreat from the Western Regions. In 119 BC, the emperor sent Zhang Qian on a second mission to the Western Regions. This time Zhang Qian went further west, while his deputies reached more than a dozen countries in South and West Asia, and the Mediterranean. Zhang Qian’s two missions to the Western Regions opened up the road to the west. Emperor Wu adopted a series of measures to strengthen ties with the Western Regions, including encouraging Han People to trade there. Soon the route was bustling with caravans of camels carrying goods of all types and reverberating with the tinkling of their bells. Through the Silk Road, trade flourished between China and Central, South and West Asian countries, Africa and Europe. In 166, envoys from Rome arrived via the Silk Road in Chang’an, were they set up an embassy. Part III Art and Aesthetics Unit 5 Music: Govern the Country, Nourish the Mind The tradition of Chinese music dates back to remote antiquity. Governing the country and nourishing the mind through music are two of the main functions of this tradition. Governance Through Music According to ancient Chinese culture, rituals provided the norms of conduct of people. The goal was to maintain social order. Music was for the mind’s cultivation and expression. Its purpose was to enhance people’s outlook on life and imbue them with energy and creativity, such that they could enjoy a more harmonious and happier spiritual life. Individual contentment would then lead to social harmony, as well as to a more harmonious relationship between people and nature. The highest level of ancient Chinese music was to represent spiritual with nature. The prominent stature of music in ancient China explains the emergence of sophisticated instruments from early times. Chime bells were one example. First used in the Shang Dynasty, they became quite popular during the Western Zhou Dynasty (1046-771 BC). In 1978, a fine set of chime bells was unearthed in Hubei Province, from the tomb of Marquis Yi, a local lord in a small state called Zeng during the Warring States Period. The Marquis Yi chime bells consist of 65 bells arranged in three rows. The first row includes 19 niu bells, and the second and third rows include 45 yong bells. The bells in each row differ from one another in shape and size, emanating(发出) different tones. In addition, there is a separate and much larger bell used to adjust pitch. Like the bells, the from is made of bronze, weighing as much as five tons or more. The total weight of the bells is more than 440 kilograms. While the bells bear inscriptions totaling more than 2,800 Chinese characters relating to music and the making of the instrument, the frame is carved with exquisite patterns in relief (浮雕) and fretwork(回纹细工). Instruments of such a scale and such fine craftsmanship were quite rate in the world at the time. Five musicians were needed to play the instrument. Each bell produces two tones when struck at the respective sound points as marked. The entire set of chime bells is able to produce all the tones of a modern piano. Consoling the Mind with Music The Chinese zither tends to create a tranquil air. The composition Wild Geese Landing on the Shallow Shore is such an example. With a relaxed rhythm, the first part of the piece depicts a calm Yangtze River under a clear autumn sky. The second part progresses into livelier rhythms to imitate the chirping of many birds. The third part presents a thematic scene of wild geese leisurely landing on the shallow shores of the Yangtze, as a gentle breeze makes the water ripple. To Chinese musicians and music lovers, the contentment of the wild geese represents the human heart. The zither was also instrumental in communication between ancient scholars and artist. The famous zither composition, Three Stanzas of Plum Blossoms, was based on an Eastern Jin Dynasty story of the poet Wang Ziyou (王子猷) (c. 338-386) and the flute player Huan Yi (桓伊) (?-383).One day the poet was taking a boat trip when he overheard someone on the riverbank say Huan Yi was passing by. Although the two had never met before, they admired each other as poet and flute player. Despite his lower rank of office, Ziyou sent a family member to request Huan Yi to play the flute. Without hesitation, Huan Yi dismounted from his carriage and played Three Stanzas of Plum Blossoms, while Ziyou listened from his boat. After finishing, Huan Yi mounted his carriage and drove on. Ziyou, too, continued with his boat journey. The two of them exchanged not a single word, yet both were content with the communication of their hearts through the flute’s three stanzas were later converted into a composition for the Chinese zither, which has become one of the best-known musical works – as an expression of otherworldly feelings through its eulogy of the plum flower’s purity, fragrance and resistance to the cold. Unit 6 Flying strokes of Calligraphy The evolution of Chinese characters font 甲骨文 the Oracle bone script →金文 Jinwen (Inscriptions on bronze ) →篆书 Seal script →隶书 Official script →楷书 Regular script →草书 Cursive script →行书running script Wang Xizhi and Preface to the Lanting Pavilion Collection In the Hall for Cultivation of Mind of the Palace Museum, there is a Three-treasurer Study, which derives its name for the three most valuable calligraphic works housed here. These three treasures, most valued and adored by Emperor Qianling (r. 1736-1795) of the Qing Dynasty, were A Sunny Scene after a Quick Snow by Wang Xizhi, Mid-Autumn by Wang Xianzhi and Boyuan by Wang Xun (349-400). As father and son, Wang Xizhi and Wang Xianzhi hae been known as the “Two Wangs”, their works universally recognized as the peak of Chinese calligraphy. Unit 7 Porcelain – Calling Card of Chinese Culture In English, the country and “porcelain” share the same name – “China”. This proves that Europeans have long known of China’s relationship to porcelain. Porcelain found its way to Europe in the 15th century, occupying an important position in the exchanges between China and other countries. The Keisel Randy Museum in Germany houses a blue-and-white bowl dating back to the Ming Dynasty. Throughout history, China, along with other Asian countries, and Europe maintained a busy and vast trade in porcelain. From 1602 to 1682, the Dutch East India Company transported more than 16 million articles of porcelain to Europe. Porcelain garnered a good reputation for China for its sophistication and elegance, and played an important role in the wave of the European idealization of China during the 17th and 18th centuries. In the rococo style popular in Europe of that time, one could sense, from time to time, the influence of “Chinese vogue” represented by China’s styles of porcelain and gardens. Porcelain is of great significance in the history of Chinese civilization. Pottery was the predecessor of porcelain, while glazed pottery was the basis for the emergence of porcelain. Around the first century, porcelain production first emerged in China, and by The Song Dynasty it had become mature. Song-Dynasty porcelain represented the acme of Chinese porcelain technique. Five famous kilns, the Jun, Ding, Guan, Ge, and Ru, were all creative and original in their respective products, and their porcelain ware has been imitated by later generations throughout the ages. In the Yuan Dynasty, Jingdezhen became the center of the Chinese Porcelain industry. Pure Blue-and-White Porcelain Pure and elegant beauty is the goal that porcelain pursues, and this ideal is best explained in the production of blue-and-white porcelain. Blue-and-white porcelain is a typical artifact of porcelain in China. Among the porcelain exported during the Ming and Qing dynasties, 80 percent was blue-and-white. Chinese-made blue-and-white porcelain ware emerged long before the founding of the Tang Dynasty, but it was not until the Yuan Dynasty that this type of porcelain came to be produced in quantity, with the attendant masterpieces. The Ming Dynasty witnessed the maturity of the art, and a large number of valuable pieces were produced in this period. Jingdezhen, a small town that created the enchanting blue-and-white porcelain of the Yuan Dynasty, became its porcelain-producing center; and in the subsequent Ming Dynasty, the imperial kilns were established here. Blue-and-white porcelain is now the most representative of Chinese porcelain. To produce blue-and-white porcelain, cobalt oxide is requisite. It is employed to draw on the white roughcast before glaze is applied. After kilning at a high temperature, the roughcast turns into blue-and-white porcelain, since cobalt oxide turns blue with heat. The white surface with blue patterns and a shiny sheen of glaze produces a pure, elegant and transparent effect. Unit 8 Peking Opera: Artistry of Performers The Delights of Peking Opera Masks China’s Peking Opera radiates with the beauty of resplendent color – vivid, intense and glamorous. This artistic beauty comes not only from the costumes but also from the masks of exaggerated, dazzling designs, gleaming with red, purples, whites, yellows, blacks, blues, greens, every diverse color imaginable. Masks, applied to the two roles of the “jing” or “painted-face role” and the “chou”or “clown”, serve two purposes. One is to indicate the identity and character of the role. For example, a “red face” means the person is loyal and brave; a “black face” signifies the person is straightforward; and “a white face” identifies the person as crafty and evil. The other purpose is to express people’s appraisal of the roles from a moral and aesthetic point of view, such as respectable, hateful, noble, ridiculous, etc. Peking Opera Performance: Sing, Speak, Act, and Fight The performance of a Peking Opera actor can be summarized into four basic aspects, of singing, speaking, acting, and fighting, the core of which is a combination of song and choreography. Singing is of utmost importance in the performance of Peking Opera, because first of all, Peking Opera is a singing art. Any famous Peking Opera boasts several wonderful arias that are well-known and popular with audiences. The charm of the melodies usually embodies the sublime realm of the art of Peking Opera. Unable to appreciate the magic of Peking Opera arias, one would fail to enjoy the profound beauty of the art itself. Speaking refers to character monologs and dialogs, which serve to propel the development of the story. Speaking, like singing, needs to be executed in an appealing way. Acting and fighting mean that actors employ physical movements to express the emotions of the characters and the circumstances. Acting includes body movements and eye movements, solo dancing or group dancing, etc. Most of the dancing is choreographed movements from everyday life. Fighting is choreographed martial arts and acrobatics to depict fight or battle scenes. As the art of Peking Opera depends on movement to depict events, actors are given much room to perform on the the opera Picking up the Jade Bracelet, the young woman Sun Yujiao and the young scholar fall in love with each other, their eyes affixed on each other as if a thread connected them. Then, as Matchmaker Liu uses her pipe to pull the “virtual” line up and down, the young couple’s eyes accordingly move up and down. These actions produce great humor and add much significance to the and fighting serve the whole “play” or the “world of images”, but at the same time they are themselves a beautiful art in both form and skill. For example, in King Chu Bids Farewell to His Concubine, artist Mei Lanfang performed a sword dance in a miraculously skillful way, which became very popular with audiences. This is a type of beauty in form. As for the beauty of skill, this usually includes some very difficult acrobatic movements, often referred to as “superb skills”. The uniqueness of performances in Peking Opera lies in the fact that the singing, speaking, acting, and fighting, all focus on one or two actors in the play. These performers used to be called “jue’er”, hence “mingjue” was used to refer to famous actors or actresses. In this sense, the world of imagery created in Peking Opera mainly relies on the singing, speaking, acting, and fighting of actors, especially in the performance of the famous plays. This is the biggest difference between Peking Opera and other forms of performing arts in terms of aesthetic appreciation. And the remark – “Peking Opera is the art of performers” – well describes its quintessence. The Beauty of a “Visual World” Depicting a “visual world” is a distinctive feature of Peking Opera. Its virtually consists of two aspects: one is virtual movements, and the other virtual settings. Virtual movement refers to imitating actions onstage. For example, riding a horse. Onstage, an actor cannot ride a real horse, but can only hold a whip and imitate the movement of galloping by walking around the stage, turning the body, wielding the whip, and pulling the reins. A virtual setting means creating an imagined environment onstage. For example, rowing a boat. As there is no water or boat on the stage, an actor usually takes an oar and, through actions, makes the audience “see” the rowing of a boat on water. One is At the Crossroad. This opera describes the story of two yamen runners escorting Jiao Zan to prison. On the way they stay at an inn for the night. Ren Tanghui, whose task is to protect Jiao Zan, checks in at the same time. The owner of the inn, however, suspects Ren Tanghui is planning to murder Jiao Zan, so he gropes his way into Ren’s room at night. Thus a fight starts. What is special about the performance is that, although the fight happens at night, the stage is brightly lit; yet the audience is able to sense it is a pitch-dark night from the actors’ performances, which feature stealthy movements typical of people in darkness. Sometimes, one man’ s sword swishes down, only a few inches away from the other’ s face, yet the latter feels nothing, thus producing a breathtaking yet meaningful and humorous effect. The other example is Autumn River, a play transplanted from Sichuan Opera. This story describes a young nun, Chen Miaochang who leaves the nunnery to pursue her lover Pan Bizheng. Onstage, there is neither water nor boat, but through the performance of the young woman and the old boatman, the audience is able to obviously “see” that the stage is a river. The boat sways forward; all the way there the girl complains about the boat for being slow, while the old boatman keeps teasing her about her anxiety to see her lover. The performance is full of wit and humor. These examples describe the function of the “virtual world” in the art of Peking Opera, which provides limitless room for the performances of actors; and in return, performers present the audience with a world of images full of appealing wit. If in fact the stage of At the Crossroad was really all black to represent the dark night, and there was a real boat on the stage of Autumn River, what could the actors do? And what we still find as much wit and meaning in the performances? We doubt it. Part IV Folk Customs Unit 9 Life with Fragrant Tea Tea is a wonderful beverage originally produced in China about 4,000 years ago. During the Tang Dynasty, Japanese monks introduced tea seeds to Japan, and by combining tea with Zen Buddhism, created the world-famous Japanese tea ceremony. In the 17th century, the Dutch took to Europe the Chinese habit of tea drinking, which then became a tradition of the Europeans. In England in particular, people developed the custom of afternoon tea. Prior to the 19th century, all the tea in the world was grown in China, and even the English word “tea” was a transliteration of the pronunciation of “tea” in the Fujian dialect of China. Tea is an important contribution of the Chinese people to the world. Ways of Savoring Tea The Chinese people look to tea drinking as an art, which incorporates a wide range of knowledge; the taste of tea might be light, yet the meaning is rich and deep. The Chinese attach great importance to the water, tea leaves, tea set, and fire, when making and drinking tea. Water is an element of priority in the making of tea. To make a good cup of tea, quality water is a must. The ancient Chinese commented on tea making thus: the tea must be new, and water must be live, or flowing. Lu Yu(陆羽) (733-804), the Saint of the Tang Dynasty, pointed out that, to make fine, water from high mountains is the best, followed by water from rivers and wells. In the cloud-enveloped high mountains, crystal clear spring water is the best for making tea; water in the brooks though also good, is not pure because it smells of the earth, therefore is only second best. Considered third is water from wells, as artificial springs from underground are often stagnant and tinted with the flavor of salt. It is thus no match at all for uncontaminated mountain spring water. Unluckily for us today, we do not even have the third type of water to make tea; we use either tap water or artificially purified water – a true pity indeed。 As making good tea needs good water, Chinese people have long developed the tradition of valuing springs, while springs have become famous because of people’s love for tea. It is said that Lu Yu had traveled around the country, tasting different types of water in different places. He finally came to the conclusion that the Baotu Spring (趵突泉) In Ji’nan, Shandong Province, was the best for tea; the Huishan Spring (惠山泉) in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province was second best; and the Hupao Spring (虎跑泉) in Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province, came third. After water, the second most important factor for making good tea is tea leaves. China has a long history of cultivating miscellaneous tea leaves. From the perspective of processing, tea leaves fall into the categories of green tea, black tea, oolong tea, dark tea, and scented tea. Green tea is the main type of tea, and its output encompasses about 70 percent of tatal production each year. The famous green teas are Longjing of Hangzhou, Biluochun of Jiangsu, and Hangshan Maofeng and Liu’an Guapian of Anhui. Black tea is fermented tea, the most famous being Qimen Black tea of Anhui and Dian Black Tea of Yunnan. Oolong tea is mainly produced in Taiwan and in the Wuyi Mountains in Fujian. Dark tea is represented by Pu’er Tea of Yunnan. Dark tea is processed by adding water to dried green tea leaves, (晒青绿毛茶) which are then fermented. There are a variety of scented teas, including chrysanthemum and jasmine tea, the favorite of northern Chinese. Fine tea needs to be served in a fine tea set. The Chinese people pay particular attention to tea sets, which may be made of porcelain, ceramic, glass or wood. China, since it is the home of porcelain, provides a solid foundation for research into making quality porcelain tea set, though the tea sets the Chinese use are not necessarily porcelain ones. Instead, ceramic tea sets are gems in the eyes of tea lovers. One typical representative is the boccaro teapot produced in Yixing near Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province, which has long been popular with people in both ancient and modern China. The fourth and final element in making good tea is the fire, which should be, first of all, “live”, as evidenced in the verse by the famous Song-dynasty poet Su Dongpo: “Flowing water needs a live fire.”(活水需得活火煎)A “live water” refers to a charcoal fire. Second, the fire should be slow, and a charcoal fire meets this requirement, as charcoal lights more slowly than other fuels do. Moreover, charcoal exudes a sense of the wild while not having that reek of smoke abhorred by tea lovers. 中国的英文。
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